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A high dose of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the mainCannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptomsin healthy volunteers. These effects of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol aresignificantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituentwhich is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation ledus to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychoticactions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearlysuggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-likeproperties of CBD have been investigated in animal models usingbehavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBDhas a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychoticdrugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using percep-tion of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychoticsymptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like propertiesof CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patientstreated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trialcomparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmedthat this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternativetreatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychoticconditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of itsantipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizo-phrenic patients are clearly indicated.